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   - LED芯片手艺及国内外差别阐发

芯片,是LED的焦点部件。今朝国内外有许多LED芯片厂家,然芯片分类没有统一的尺度,若按功率分类,则有大功率和中小功率之分;若按色彩分类,

则次要为白色、绿色、蓝色三种;若按外形分类,普通分为方片、圆片两种;若按电压分类,则分为高压直流芯片和高压直流芯片。国内外芯片手艺对

例如面,外洋芯片手艺新,海内芯片重产量不重手艺。

衬底质料和晶圆发展手艺成枢纽,今朝,LED芯片手艺的开展关键在于衬底质料和晶圆发展手艺。除了传统的蓝宝石、硅(Si)、碳化硅(SiC)衬底质料之外,

氧化锌(ZnO)和氮化镓(GaN)等也是当前LED芯片研讨的核心。今朝,市情上大多接纳蓝宝石或碳化硅衬底来内涵发展宽带隙半导体氮化镓,这两种材料价格

都十分高贵,且都为外洋大企业所把持,而硅衬底的价格比蓝宝石和碳化硅衬底自制很多,可建造出尺寸更大的衬底,提高MOCVD的利用率,从而提高管芯

产率。以是,为打破国际专利壁垒,国外研讨机构和LED企业从硅衬底质料动手研讨。

但问题是,硅与氮化镓的高质量分离是LED芯片的手艺难点,二者的晶格常数和热膨胀系数的宏大失配而惹起的缺点密度高和裂纹等手艺成绩长期以来障碍

着芯片范畴的开展。

 

无疑,从衬底角度看,支流衬底仍然是蓝宝石和碳化硅,但硅曾经成为芯片范畴此后的发展趋势。关于价格战相对严峻的国外来讲,硅衬底更有成本和价

 

格优势:硅衬底是导电衬底,不单能够削减管芯面积,还能够省去对氮化镓内涵层的干法腐化步调,加上,硅的硬度比蓝宝石和碳化硅低,在加工方面也

能够节流一些本钱。

 

今朝LED财产大多以2英寸或4英寸的蓝宝石基板为主,如能接纳硅基氮化镓手艺,最少可节流75%的质料本钱。据日本三垦电气公司估量,利用硅衬底建造大

尺寸蓝光氮化镓LED的制造本钱将比蓝宝石衬底和碳化硅衬底低90%。

 

国内外芯片手艺差别大

 

在国外,欧司朗、美国普瑞、日本三垦等一流企业曾经在大尺寸硅衬底氮化镓基LED研讨上获得打破,飞利浦、韩国三星、LG、日本东芝等国际LED巨子也

掀起了一股硅衬底上氮化镓基LED的研讨高潮。此中,在2011年,美国普瑞在8英寸硅衬底上研发出高光效氮化镓基LED,取得了与蓝宝石及碳化硅衬底上顶

尖程度的LED器件机能相媲美的发光服从160lm/W;在2012年,欧司朗胜利消费出6英寸硅衬底氮化镓基LED。

 

反观中国内地,LED芯片企业手艺的突破点次要仍是提高产能和大尺寸蓝宝石晶体生长手艺,除了晶能光电在2011年景功实现2英寸硅衬底氮化镓基大功率

LED芯片的量产外,国外芯片企业在硅衬底氮化镓基LED研讨上无大的打破,今朝中国内地LED芯片企业仍是主攻产能、蓝宝石衬底质料及晶圆发展手艺,

三安光电、德豪润达、同方股分等本地芯片巨子也大多在产能上获得打破。

LED chip technology and variance analysis at home and abroad

The chip is the core component of the LED. There are a lot of the LED chip manufacturers at home and abroad, but no unified standard chip classification, classification in terms of power, there are points of high power and small power; If according to the classification of color,

Mainly for red, green, blue three; If according to the shape classification, generally divided into two kinds of square piece, wafer; If according to the classification of voltage, it is divided into low voltage dc and high voltage direct current chip. Chip technology at home and abroad

Than in terms of foreign new chip technology, heavy production not heavy domestic chip technology.

Substrate materials and wafer into key growth technology, at present, the LED chip technology substrate materials and wafer growth is the key of the development of technology. In addition to the traditional sapphire, silicon (Si), silicon carbide (SiC) substrate materials,

Zinc oxide (ZnO) and gallium nitride (GaN) is also the focus of current research LED chip. On market at present, most of sapphire and silicon carbide substrate is used to broadband gap semiconductor gallium nitride epitaxial growth, these two kinds of material price

Are very expensive, and monopoly by foreign companies, while prices of silicon substrate sapphire and silicon carbide substrate much cheaper, can produce larger substrate, improve the utilization rate of MOCVD, thus improve the tube core

Production rate. So, to break through the barriers to the international patent, research institutions and LED Chinese companies from working on silicon substrate material.

But the problem is that the high quality of silicon and gallium nitride is combined with the technical difficulties of the LED chip of lattice constant and the thermal expansion coefficient of the two huge mismatch caused by the high density of defects and cracks and other technical problem for a long time

The development in the field of chip.

There is no doubt that from the perspective of the substrate mainstream substrate is still a sapphire and silicon carbide, but silicon has become a development trend of the chip area in the future. For China's price is relatively serious, silicon substrate is more cost and price

Advantage: silicon substrate is electrically conductive substrate, not only can reduce the tube core area, you can also save on gallium nitride epitaxial layer of dry etching step, in addition, the hardness of silicon less than sapphire and silicon carbide, also in the processing

Can save some cost.

At present most of the LED industry to 2 inches or 4 inches of the sapphire substrate is given priority to, such as can use silicon technology of gallium nitride, at least 75% of the raw material cost can be saved. Sanken electric company estimated, using silicon substrate production

Size blu-ray gallium nitride LED manufacturing costs will be 90% lower than the sapphire substrate and the silicon carbide substrate.

The large difference of chip technology at home and abroad

Abroad, osram, American pury, sanken, first-class enterprise in large size silicon substrate on gallium nitride based LED research breakthrough, philips, samsung, LG, Toshiba and other international LED titans

An upsurge of gallium nitride based on silicon substrate LED the study. Among them, in 2011, the United States pury in 8 inches on silicon substrate to develop high photosynthetic efficiency gallium nitride leds, made with sapphire and silicon carbide substrate

Sharp LED device performance comparable to the level of the luminous efficiency of 160 lm/W; In 2012, osram successfully produce 6 inches silicon substrate gallium nitride-based leds.

In mainland China, the LED chip to enterprise technology breakthrough largely increase its production capacity and large size sapphire crystal growth technology, in addition to the lattice lighting in 2011 successfully 2 inches silicon substrate gallium nitride based power

Volume production of LED chip, chip Chinese companies in the silicon substrate gallium nitride LED research on no major breakthrough, the Chinese mainland LED chip companies or main production capacity, the sapphire substrate materials and wafer growth technology,

 

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